ES6语法常用特性总结

ECMAScript6在保证向下兼容的前提下,提供大量新特性,目前浏览器兼容情况如下:

ES6特性如下:

块级作用域

关键字let,
常量const

blogexcerpt:123456789

对象字面量的属性赋值简写

var obj = {
    // __proto__
    __proto__: theProtoObj,
    // Shorthand for ‘handler: handler’
    handler,
    // Method definitions
    toString() {
    // Super calls
    return "d " + super.toString();
    },
    // Computed (dynamic) property names
    [ 'prop_' + (() => 42)() ]: 42
};

赋值解构

let singer = { first: "Bob", last: "Dylan" };
let { first: f, last: l } = singer; // 相当于 f = "Bob", l = "Dylan"
let [all, year, month, day] =  /^(\d\d\d\d)-(\d\d)-(\d\d)$/.exec("2015-10-25");
let [x, y] = [1, 2, 3]; // x = 1, y = 2

4.函数参数(Default 、Rest 、Spread)

//Default
function findArtist(name='lu', age='26') {
    ...
}

//Rest
function f(x, ...y) {
  // y is an Array
  return x * y.length;
}

f(3, "hello", true) == 6

//Spread
function f(x, y, z) {
  return x + y + z;
}
// Pass each elem of array as argument
f(...[1,2,3]) == 6

箭头函数

  1. 简化了代码形式,默认return表达式结果。
  1. 自动绑定语义this,即定义函数时的this。如上面例子中,forEach的匿名函数参数中用到的this。

字符串模板

var name = "Bob", time = "today";
`Hello ${name}, how are you ${time}?`
// return "Hello Bob, how are you today?"

Iterators(迭代器)+ for..of

迭代器有个next方法,调用会返回:

  1. 返回迭代对象的一个元素:{ done: false, value: elem }

  2. 如果已到迭代对象的末端:{ done: true, value: retVal }

for (var n of ['a','b','c']) { console.log(n); } // 打印a、b、c

Class

Class,有constructor、extends、super,但本质上是语法糖(对语言的功能并没有影响,但是更方便程序员使用)。

class Artist {
    constructor(name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    perform() {
        return this.name + " performs ";
    }
}


class Singer extends Artist {

    constructor(name, song) {
        super.constructor(name);
        this.song = song;
    }

    perform() {
        return super.perform() + "[" + this.song + "]";
    }
}

let james = new Singer("Etta James", "At last");
james instanceof Artist; // true
james instanceof Singer; // true

james.perform(); // "Etta James performs [At last]"

Map + Set + WeakMap + WeakSet

四种集合类型,WeakMap、WeakSet作为属性键的对象如果没有别的变量在引用它们,则会被回收释放掉。

// Sets
var s = new Set();
s.add("hello").add("goodbye").add("hello");
s.size === 2;
s.has("hello") === true;

// Maps
var m = new Map();
m.set("hello", 42);
m.set(s, 34);
m.get(s) == 34;

//WeakMap
var wm = new WeakMap();
wm.set(s, { extra: 42 });
wm.size === undefined

// Weak Sets
var ws = new WeakSet();
ws.add({ data: 42 });//Because the added object has no other references, it will not be held in the set
12.Math + Number + String + Array + Object APIs

一些新的API

Number.EPSILON
Number.isInteger(Infinity) // false
Number.isNaN("NaN") // false

Math.acosh(3) // 1.762747174039086
Math.hypot(3, 4) // 5
Math.imul(Math.pow(2, 32) - 1, Math.pow(2, 32) - 2) // 2

"abcde".includes("cd") // true
"abc".repeat(3) // "abcabcabc"

Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('*')) // Returns a real Array
Array.of(1, 2, 3) // Similar to new Array(...), but without special one-arg behavior

[0, 0, 0].fill(7, 1) // [0,7,7]
[1, 2, 3].find(x => x == 3) // 3
[1, 2, 3].findIndex(x => x == 2) // 1
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(3, 0) // [1, 2, 3, 1, 2]
["a", "b", "c"].entries() // iterator [0, "a"], [1,"b"], [2,"c"]
["a", "b", "c"].keys() // iterator 0, 1, 2
["a", "b", "c"].values() // iterator "a", "b", "c"

Object.assign(Point, { origin: new Point(0,0) })

Proxies

使用代理(Proxy)监听对象的操作,然后可以做一些相应事情。

var target = {};
var handler = {
  get: function (receiver, name) {
    return `Hello, ${name}!`;
  }
};

var p = new Proxy(target, handler);
p.world === 'Hello, world!';

可监听的操作:

get、set、has、deleteProperty、apply、construct、getOwnPropertyDescriptor、defineProperty、getPrototypeOf、setPrototypeOf、enumerate、ownKeys、preventExtensions、isExtensible。

Symbols

Symbol是一种基本类型。Symbol 通过调用symbol函数产生,它接收一个可选的名字参数,该函数返回的symbol是唯一的。

var key = Symbol("key");
var key2 = Symbol("key");
key == key2  //false

Promises

Promises是处理异步操作的对象,使用了 Promise 对象之后可以用一种链式调用的方式来组织代码,让代码更加直观(类似jQuery的deferred 对象)。

function fakeAjax(url) {
  return new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
    // setTimeouts are for effect, typically we would handle XHR
    if (!url) {
      return setTimeout(reject, 1000);
    }
    return setTimeout(resolve, 1000);
  });
}

// no url, promise rejected
fakeAjax().then(function () {
  console.log('success');
},function () {
  console.log('fail');
});

总结
对于ES6,在某些方式是不是重蹈ES4的覆辙,变得复杂了;又或许几年后大家的接受能力变强了,觉得是应该这样了。我觉得还是不错的,因为它们是向下兼容的,即使复杂语法不会用,也能用自己熟知的方式,提供的语法糖也都挺实际。

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